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A liberal branch of Judaism, Reform Judaism is typically characterized by lessened stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as non-binding and the individual Jew as autonomous, and great openness to external influences and progressive values. The origins of Reform Judaism lie in 19th-century Germany, where Rabbi Abraham Geiger and his associates formulated its early principles. Since the 1970s, the movement has adopted a policy of inclusiveness and overall acceptance, inviting as many as possible to partake in its communities, rather than strict theoretical clarity. It is strongly identified with progressive political and social agendas, mainly under the traditional Jewish rubric tikkun olam, or “repairing of the world”. Tikkun olam is a central motto of Reform Judaism, and action for its sake is one of the main channels for adherents to express their affiliation. As of 2021, the Reform Judaism movement’s most significant center is in North America.
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